Happy Feet is a 2006 computer-animated musical comedy film directed, produced, and co-written by George Miller. It stars the voices of Elijah Wood, Robin Williams, Cilina Lanoil, Hugh Jackman, Nicole Kidman, Hugo Weaving, and E.G. Daily. An international co-production between the United States and Australia, the film was produced at Sydney-based visual effects and animation studio Animal Logic for Warner Bros.Village Roadshow Pictures, and Kingdom Feature Productions, and was released in North American theaters on November 17, 2006. It is the first animated film produced by Kennedy Miller and Animal Logic.

Though primarily an animated film, the film does incorporate motion capture of live action humans in certain scenes. The film was simultaneously released in both conventional theatres and in IMAX 2D format.[3] The studio had hinted that a future IMAX 3D release was a possibility. However, Warner Bros., the film's production company, was on too tight a budget to release Happy Feet in IMAX digital 3D.[4]

Happy Feet received generally positive reviews from critics, and won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, a first for Warner Bros., as well as the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film.[5] It was nominated for the Annie Award for Best Animated Feature and the Saturn Award for Best Animated Film. A sequel, Happy Feet Two, was released on November 18, 2011.


Every emperor penguin sings a unique song called a "heartsong" to attract a mate. If the male penguin's heartsong matches the female's song, the two penguins mate. Norma Jean, a female penguin, falls for Memphis, a male penguin and they become mates. They lay an egg, which is left in Memphis' care, while Norma Jean leaves with the other females to fish. While the males struggle through the harsh winter, Memphis briefly drops the egg. As a result, their son, Mumble, is unable to sing, but he can tap dance instead. Nevertheless, he is enamored with Gloria, a female penguin who is regarded as the most talented of her age. One day, Mumble encounters a group of hostile skua, with a leader who is tagged with a yellow band, which he says is from an alien abduction. Mumble narrowly escapes the hungry birds by falling into a crevice.

Now a young adult, Mumble is frequently ridiculed by the elders. After escaping from a leopard seal attack, Mumble befriends a group of Adelie penguins called "the Amigos", who embrace Mumble's dance moves and assimilate him into their group. After seeing a hidden human excavator in an avalanche, they opt to ask Lovelace, a rockhopper penguin, about its origin. Lovelace has the plastic rings of a six pack entangled around his neck, which he claims have been bestowed upon him by mystic beings.

For the emperor penguins, it is mating season and Gloria is the center of attention. Ramón, one of the Amigos, attempts to help Mumble win her affection by singing a Spanish version of "My Way", with Mumble lip syncing, but the plan fails, and Gloria finds it embarrassing. In desperation, Mumble begins tap dancing in synch with her song. She falls for him and the youthful penguins join in for singing and dancing to "Boogie Wonderland". The elders are appalled by Mumble's conduct, which they see as the reason for their lean fishing season. Memphis begs Mumble to stop dancing, for his own sake, but when Mumble refuses, he is exiled, prompting him to curse revenge on the elders for their blind belief.

Mumble and the Amigos return to Lovelace, only to find him being choked by the plastic rings. Lovelace confesses they were snagged on him while swimming off the forbidden shores, beyond the land of the elephant seals. Not long into their journey, they are met by Gloria, who wishes to join with Mumble as his mate. Fearing for her safety, he ridicules Gloria, driving her away.

At the forbidden shore, the group finds a fishing boat. Mumble pursues it solo to the brink of exhaustion. He is eventually washed up on the shore of Australia, where he is rescued and kept at Marine World with Magellanic penguins. After a long and secluded confinement in addition to fruitlessly trying to communicate with the humans, he nearly succumbs to madness. When a girl attempts to interact with Mumble by tapping the glass, he starts dancing, which attracts a large crowd. He is released back into the wild, with a tracking device attached to his back. He returns to his colony and challenges the will of the elders. Memphis reconciles with him, just as a research team arrives, proving the claims of the existence of "aliens" to be true. The whole of the colony, even Noah the leader of the elders, engages in dance.

The research team returns their expedition footage, prompting a worldwide debate. The governments realize they are overfishing, leading to the banning of all Antarctic fishing. At this, the emperor penguins and the Amigos celebrate.


  • Elijah Wood as Mumble
  • Robin Williams as Ramón and Lovelace
  • Brittany Murphy as Gloria
  • Hugh Jackman as Memphis
  • Nicole Kidman as Norma Jean
  • Hugo Weaving as Noah the Elder
  • Anthony LaPaglia as Boss Skua
  • Magda Szubanski as Miss Viola
  • Steve Irwin as Trev
  • Miriam Margoyles as Mrs. Astrakhan
  • Fat Joe as Semyour
  • Carlos Alazraqui as Nestor
  • Lombardo Boyar as Raul
  • Jeffrey Garcia as Rinaldo
  • Johnny A. Sanchez as Lombardo
  • EG Daily as Baby Mumble
  • Roger Rose as Leopard Seal
  • Danny Mann as Dino
  • Michael Cornacchia as Frankie
  • Mark Klastorin as Vinnie
  • Nick McKay as Nev
  • Tirel Mora as Kev
  • Richard Carter as Barry
  • Lee Perry as Elder and Zoo Penguin
  • Alan Shearman as Elder
  • Larry Moss as Elder
  • Peter Carroll as Elder
  • Dee Bradley Baker as Maurice
  • Chrissie Hynde as Michelle
  • Danny Mann as Zoo Penguin

Additional voices

  • Michael McKean - Elder Penguin
  • Logan Arens -
  • Dee Bradley Baker - Baby Mumble (noises)
  • Charles Bartlett -
  • Shane Baumel - Baby Penguin
  • T.J. Beacom -
  • Kwesi Boakye -
  • A.J. Buckley - Penguin
  • Erin Chambers -
  • Ricky D'Shon Collins - Teenage Penguin
  • Scott E. Cox -
  • Django Craig - Penguin
  • Nicholas DeLaurentis -
  • Olivia DeLaurentis -
  • Chris Edgerly - Elder Penguin, Crowd Penguin
  • Efrain Figueroa -
  • Jeff Fischer - Penguin
  • Sonje Fortag -
  • Spencer Lacey Ganus - Baby Penguin
  • Khamani Griffin -
  • Khadijah Haqq -
  • Aldis Hodge -
  • Fisher Keene -
  • Arif S. Kinchen - Skuas
  • Michael Krepack
  • Libby Lynch
  • Dianne Michelle
  • Ryan Munck
  • Christian Pikes
  • Steve Pinto - Various Penguin
  • Zoe Raye - Baby Penguin
  • Noreen Reardon - Female Penguin
  • Jack Angel, Tia Carrere, Paul Eiding, Phil Proctor, Rodger Bumpass, Bill Farmer, Frank Oz, John O'Hurley, Carole Jeghers and Patrick Pinney as Additional Voices
  • Frank Welker as Killer Whales


George Miller cites as an initial inspiration for the film an encounter with a grizzled old cameraman, whose father was Frank Hurley of the Shackleton expeditions, during the shooting of Mad Max 2: "We were sitting in this bar, having a milkshake, and he looked across at me and said, ‘Antarctica.’ He'd shot a documentary there. He said, ‘You’ve got to make a film in Antarctica. It’s just like out here, in the wasteland. It’s spectacular.’ And that always stuck in my head.”[6]

Happy Feet was also partially inspired by earlier documentaries such as the BBC's Life in the Freezer.[7] In 2001, during an otherwise non-sequitur meeting, Doug Mitchell impulsively presented Warner Bros., studio president Alan Hornwith an early rough draft of the film's screenplay, and asked them to read it while he and Miller flew back to Australia. By the time they'd landed, Warner had decided to provide funding on the film. Production was slated to begin sometime after the completion of the fourth Mad Max film, Fury Road, but geo-political complications pushed Happy Feet to the forefront in early 2003.

An earlier cut of the film seems to have included a large subplot regarding aliens in the extraterrestrial sense, whose presence was made gradually more and more known throughout, and who were planning to siphon off the planet's resources gradually, placing the humans in the same light as the penguins. At the end, through the plight of the main character, their hand is stayed and, instead, first contact is made. This was chopped out during the last year of production, and has yet to see the light of day in a finished form, although concept art from these sequences were showcased at the Siggraph 2007 demonstration,[8] and are available online, as well.

The animation is invested heavily in motion capture technology, with the dance scenes acted out by human dancers. The tap-dancing for Mumble in particular was provided by Savion Glover who was also co-choreographer for the dance sequences.[9] The dancers went through "Penguin School" to learn how to move like a penguin, and also wore head apparatus to mimic a penguin's beak.[10]

Happy Feet needed an enormous group of computers, and Animal Logic worked with IBM to build a server farm with sufficient processing potential. The film took four years to make. Ben Gunsberger, Lighting Supervisor and VFX Department Supervisor, says this was partly because they needed to build new infrastructure and tools. The server farm used IBM BladeCenter framework and BladeCenter HS20 blade servers, which are extremely dense separate computer units each with two Intel Xeon processors. Rendering took up 17 million CPU hours over a nine-month period.[11]

According to Miller, the environmental message was not a major part of the original script, but "In Australia, we're very, very aware of the ozone hole," he said, "and Antarctica is literally the canary in the coal mine for this stuff. So it sort of had to go in that direction." This influence led to a film with a more environmental tone. Miller said, "You can't tell a story about Antarctica and the penguins without giving that dimension."[12]

The film was dedicated to the memory of Nick Enright, Michael Jonson, Robby McNeilly Green, and Steve Irwin.


Happy Feet is a jukebox musical, taking previously recorded songs and working them into the film's soundtrack to fit with the mood of the scene or character. Two soundtrack albums were released for the film; one containing songs from and inspired by the film, and another featuring John Powell's instrumental score. They were released on October 31, 2006 and December 19, 2006, respectively.

Prince's "Song of the Heart" won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. The film won Golden Trailer Award for Best Music.[13] The song was written by Prince specifically for Happy Feet shortly after he was given a private screening of the film in order to gain his approval for the use of his song "Kiss" in a musical number.[14] Prince enjoyed the film, gave his approval for the use of "Kiss" and offered to write an original song for the production, which he completed a week later.[14]


Happy Feet: Music from the Motion Picture is the lyrical soundtrack album from the 2006 animated film Happy Feet. As of March 2007, the OST has sold over 272,627 copies in the US.

Happy Feet: Music from the Motion Picture[15]
No. Title Writer(s) Performer(s) Length
1. "The Song of the Heart" Prince Prince 4:35
2. "Hit Me Up" Brian Kierulf, Josh Schwartz & Gia Farrell Gia Farrell 3:16
3. "Tell Me Something Good" Stevie Wonder Pink 3:08
4. "Somebody to Love" Freddie Mercury Brittany Murphy 3:47
5. "I Wish" Stevie Wonder Patti LaBelle, Yolanda Adamsand Fantasia Barrino 3:31
6. "Jump N' Move" Simon Bartholomew, Jan Kincaid, Andrew Levy & Jamal Mitchell The Brand New Heavies (featuring Jamalski) 3:18
7. "Do It Again" Brian Wilson & Mike Love The Beach Boys 2:24
8. "The Joker mash-up with Everything I Own" "The Joker" by Steve Miller, Eddie Curtis & Ahmet Ertegün;

"Everything I Own" by David Gates

"The Joker" by Jason Mraz;

"Everything I Own" by Chrissie Hynde

9. "My Way (A Mi Manera)" Paul Anka, Jacques Revaux, Claude François & Gilles Thibault Robin Williams 1:44
10. "Kiss mash-up with Heartbreak Hotel" "Kiss" by Prince;

"Heartbreak Hotel" by Mae Boren Axton, Thomas Durden, and Elvis Presley

"Kiss by Nicole Kidman;

"Heartbreak Hotel" by Hugh Jackman

11. "Boogie Wonderland" Allee Willis & Jonathan Lind Brittany Murphy 5:07
12. "Golden Slumbers / The End" Paul McCartney k.d. lang 4:16
13. "The Story of Mumble Happy Feet" John Powell    5:50
Total length: 47:37


Box office

The film opened at #1 in the United States on its first weekend of release (November 17–19) grossing $41.6 million and beating Casino Royale for the top spot.[16] It remained #1 for the Thanksgiving weekend, making $51.6 million over the five-day period. In total, the film was the top grosser for three weeks, a 2006 box office feat matched only by Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. As of June 8, 2008, Happy Feet has grossed $198.0 million in the U.S. and $186.3 million overseas, making about $384.3 million worldwide. Happy Feet was the third highest grossing animated film in the U.S., behind Cars and Ice Age: The Meltdown. The film has been released in about 35 international territories at the close of 2006.[17][18]

The production budget was $100 million.[2]

Critical reception

Happy Feet received generally positive reviews from critics. On review aggregator site Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 75% "Certified Fresh" score based on 161 reviews, with an average rating of 6.9/10. The site's consensus was "Visually dazzling, with a thoughtful storyline and catchy musical numbers, Happy Feet marks a successful animated debut from the makers of Babe."[19]Metacritic reports a 77 out of 100 rating, based on 30 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[20]


The film garnered analysis and dissection from various critics. Film critic Yar Habnegnal wrote an essay in Forum on Contemporary Art and Society that examines the themes of encroachment presented throughout the film, as well as various other subtexts and themes, such as religious hierarchy and interracial tensions.[21] Vadim Rizov of the Independent Film Channel sees Mumble as just the latest in a long line of cinematic religious mavericks.

On a technical or formal level, the film has also been lauded in some corners for its innovative introduction of Miller's roving style of subjective cinematography into contemporary animation.

Home media

Happy Feet was released on home media on March 27, 2007[22] in the United States in three formats; DVD (in separate widescreen and pan and scaneditions), Blu-ray Disc, and an HD DVD/DVD combo pack.[23]

Among the DVD's special features is a scene that was cut from the film where Mumble meets a blue whale and an albatross. The albatross was Steve Irwin's first voice role in the film before he voiced the elephant seal in the final cut. The scene was finished and included on the DVD in Irwin's memory. This scene is done in Irwin's classic documentary style, with the albatross telling the viewer all about the other characters in the scene, and the impact people are having on their environment.


The film appeared on numerous critics' top ten lists of the best films of 2006.[24][25]

Award Category Winner/Nominee Result
Academy Awards Best Animated Feature Won
American Film Institute Awards Honored as one of the Top Ten Best Films of the Year Won
Annie Awards Best Animated Feature George Miller Nominated
Best Writing in an Animated Feature Production George Miller, John Collee, Judy Morris, and Warren Coleman Nominated
British Academy Children's Awards Best Feature Film Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Animated Feature Film Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Animated Feature Film Nominated
Best Original Song "Song of the Heart" by Prince Won
Golden Trailer Awards[26] Best Music Won
Grammy Awards Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media John Powell Nominated
Best Song Written for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media "The Song of the Heart", Prince Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Favorite Animated Movie Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards Best Animation Won
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Animated Film Won
Satellite Awards Best Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media Nominated
Saturn Awards Best Animated Film Nominated

Video games

Main article: Happy Feet (video game)

A video game based on the film was developed by A2M and published by Midway Games. It has the same main cast as the film. It was released for the PC, PlayStation 2, GameCube, GBA, NDS, and Wii.[27]

Artificial Life, Inc. has also developed a mobile game for the Japan market.[28]



Main article: Happy Feet Two

Happy Feet Two was produced at Dr. D Studios[29] and released on November 18, 2011. Wood and Williams reprised their roles for the sequel. Murphy was set to reprise her role and begin recording sometime in 2010,[30] but was replaced by P!nk after Murphy died from pneumonia on December 20, 2009. Matt Damonand Brad Pitt signed on as Bill the Krill and Will the Krill respectively.[31][32]

In an interview with, Miller mentioned the small possibility of Happy Feet Three, stating that if he came up with an idea for a third film, that he and his studio would produce it if they both agreed the idea was better than the first two. As of now, however, he has yet to mention if he has any ideas for a third film since the interview.[33]

4-D attraction

Happy Feet 4-D Experience is a 12-minute 4D film shown at various 4D theaters over the world. It retells the condensed story of Happy Feet with the help of 3D projection and sensory effects, including moving seats, wind, mist and scents. Produced by SimEx-Iwerks, the 4D experience premiered in March 2010 at the Drayton Manor Theme Park.[34] Other locations included Sea World (2010–2011),[35] Shedd Aquarium (2010–2012),[36] Moody Gardens (2010–2011),[37]Nickelodeon Suites Resort,[38] and Adventure Aquarium.[39]

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