Fred McFeely Rogers (March 20, 1928 - February 27, 2003) was an American television personality, musician, puppeteer, writer, producer, and Presbyterian minister. Rogers was famous for creating, hosting, and composing the theme music for the educational preschool television series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (1968-2001), which featured his kind-hearted, grandfatherly personality, and directness to his audiences.[1]

Initially educated to be a minister, Rogers was displeased with the way television addressed children and made an effort to change this when he began to write for and perform on local Pittsburgh-area shows dedicated to youth. WQED developed his own show in 1968 and it was distributed nationwide by Eastern Educational Television Network. Over the course of three decades on television, Fred Rogers became an icon of American children's entertainment and education.[2] He was also known for his advocacy of various public causes. His testimony before a lower court in favor of fair-use recording of television shows to play at another time (now known as time shifting) was cited in a U.S. Supreme Court decision on the Betamax case, and he gave now-famous testimony to a U.S. Senate committee, advocating government funding for children's television.[3]

Rogers received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, some forty honorary degrees,[4] and a Peabody Award. He was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame, was recognized by two Congressional resolutions, and was ranked No. 35 among TV Guide's Fifty Greatest TV Stars of All Time.[5] Several buildings and artworks in Pennsylvania are dedicated to his memory, and the Smithsonian Institution displays one of his trademark sweaters as a "Treasure of American History". On June 25, 2016, a historical marker named the Fred Rogers Historical Marker was placed near Latrobe, Pennsylvania, and was named and dedicated in his memory.[6]

Contents 1 Early and personal life 2 Television career 2.1 Early work 2.2 Mister Rogers' Neighborhood 2.3 Other television work 2.4 Emmys for programming 3 Other works 4 Advocacy 4.1 PBS funding 4.2 VCR 5 Death and memorials 6 Awards and honors 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links Early and personal life

Rogers in Chicago in 1994. Rogers was born in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, 40 miles (65 km) southeast of Pittsburgh, to James and Nancy Rogers; he had one sister, Elaine.[7] Early in life, he spent much of his free time with his maternal grandfather, Fred McFeely, who had an interest in music. He would often sing along as his mother would play the piano, and he himself began playing at five.[4]

Rogers graduated from Latrobe High School (1946).[8] He studied at Dartmouth College (1946-48),[9] then transferred to Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida, where he earned a B.A. in Music Composition in 1951.[10] Rogers was also a trained general aviation pilot.[11]

At Rollins, he met Sara Joanne Byrd (born c. 1928),[12] an Oakland, Florida, native; they married on June 9, 1952.[13] They had two sons, James (b. 1959) and John (b. 1961).[14] In 1963, Rogers graduated from Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and was ordained a minister in the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.[15]

Rogers had an apartment in New York City and a summer home on Nantucket island in Massachusetts.[14][16] Rogers was red-green color blind,[17] swam every morning, and neither smoked nor drank.[18] He was a vegetarian on ethical grounds, stating "I don't want to eat anything that has a mother."[19] Despite recurring rumors, he never served in the military.[20][21][22]

His office at WQED Pittsburgh famously did not have a desk, only a sofa and armchairs, because Rogers thought a desk was "too much of a barrier".[23]

Television career External audio Terry Gross and Fred Rogers, Fresh Air with Terry Gross[15] Early work Fred Rogers had a life-changing moment when he first saw television in his parents' home. He entered seminary after college; but, after his first experience as a viewer, he wanted to explore the potential of the medium.[16] In an interview with CNN in his later years, Rogers stated, "I went into television because I hated it so, and I thought there's some way of using this fabulous instrument to nurture those who would watch and listen."[18]

He applied for a job at NBC in New York City in 1951 and then worked on musical programs including Your Hit Parade, The Kate Smith Hour, and The Voice of Firestone.[15] He also worked on Gabby Hayes' show for children. Ultimately, Rogers decided that commercial television's reliance on advertisement and merchandising undermined its ability to educate or enrich young audiences, so he quit NBC.

In 1954, he began working at WQED, a Pittsburgh public television station, as a puppeteer on the local children's show The Children's Corner. For the next seven years,[24] he worked with host Josie Carey in unscripted live TV, developing many of the puppets, characters, and music used in his later work, such as King Friday XIII and X the Owl.

Rogers began wearing his famous sneakers when he found them to be quieter than his work shoes as he moved about behind the set. He was also the voices of King Friday XIII and Queen Sara Saturday (named after his wife), rulers of the neighborhood; as well as X the Owl, Henrietta Pussycat, Daniel Stripèd Tiger, Lady Elaine Fairchilde, and Larry Horse. The show won a Sylvania Award[25] for best children's show and was briefly broadcast nationally on NBC.

During his off hours, he would leave the WQED studios during his lunch breaks to study theology at the nearby Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Rogers, however, was not interested in preaching; and, after his ordination, he was specifically charged to continue his work with Children's Television.[26] He had also done work at the University of Pittsburgh's program in Child Development and Child Care.

In 1963, Rogers moved to Toronto, where he was contracted by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to develop his debut in front of the camera, the 15-minute children's program Misterogers,[27] which, though popular with children, ran for just three seasons. Many of his famous set pieces-Trolley, Eiffel Tower, the 'tree', and 'castle'-were created by CBC designers. While in Canada, Rogers brought to Mister Rogers' Neighborhood his friend and understudy Ernie Coombs, who would go on to create Mr. Dressup, a very successful and long-running children's show in Canada, and similar in many ways. Mr. Dressup also used some of the songs that would be featured on Rogers' later program. The two of them co-starred on Butternut Square on CBC TV between October 19, 1964, and February 10, 1967.

In 1966, Rogers acquired the rights to his program from the CBC and moved the show to WQED in Pittsburgh, where he had worked on The Children's Corner. He developed the new show for the Eastern Educational Network. Stations that carried the program were limited but did include educational stations in Boston; Washington, D.C.; and New York City.

After returning to Pittsburgh, Rogers attended the Sixth Presbyterian Church in the Squirrel Hill neighborhood.[28]

Distribution of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood began on February 19, 1968. The following year, the show moved to PBS (Public Broadcasting Service). In 1971, Rogers formed Family Communications, Inc. (FCI), and the company established offices in the WQED building in Pittsburgh. Initially, the company served solely as the production arm of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, but it now develops and produces an array of children's programming and educational materials.

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood

A sweater worn by Rogers, on display in the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of American History. Main article: Mister Rogers' Neighborhood Mister Rogers' Neighborhood began airing in 1968 and ran for 895 episodes; the last set of new episodes was taped in December 2000 and began airing in August 2001. At its peak, in 1985, 8% of U.S households tuned into the show.[4]

Each episode began the same way: Mister Rogers is seen coming home, singing his theme song "Won't You Be My Neighbor?", and changing into sneakers and a zippered cardigan sweater (he stated in an interview for Emmy TV that all of his sweaters were knitted by his mother).[29] In a typical episode, Rogers might have an earnest conversation with his television audience, interact with live guests, take a field trip to such places as a bakery or a music store, or watch a short film. Typical video subjects included demonstrations of how mechanical objects work, such as bulldozers, or how things are manufactured, such as crayons. Each episode included a trip to Rogers' "Neighborhood of Make-Believe" featuring a trolley with its own chiming theme song, a castle, and the kingdom's citizens, including King Friday XIII. The subjects discussed in the Neighborhood of Make-Believe often allowed further development of themes discussed in Mister Rogers' "real" neighborhood. Mister Rogers often fed his fish during episodes. They were originally named Fennel and Frieda. Typically, each week's episode explored a major theme, such as going to school for the first time. Originally, most episodes ended with a song entitled "Tomorrow", and Friday episodes looked forward to the week ahead with an adapted version of "It's Such a Good Feeling". In later seasons, all episodes ended with "Feeling".

Rogers on the set of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in the late 1960s. Visually, the presentation of the show was very simple, and it did not feature the animation or fast pace of other children's shows, which Rogers thought of as "bombardment".[3] Rogers also believed in not acting out a different persona on camera compared to how he acted off camera, stating that "One of the greatest gifts you can give anybody is the gift of your honest self. I also believe that kids can spot a phony a mile away."[30] Rogers composed almost all of the music on the program.[note 1] He wanted to teach children to love themselves and others, and he addressed common childhood fears with comforting songs and skits. For example, one of his famous songs explains how a child cannot be pulled down the bathtub drain because he or she will not fit. He even once took a trip to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh to show children that a hospital is not a place to fear. During the Gulf War (1990-91), he assured his audience that all children in the neighborhood would be well cared for and asked parents to promise to take care of their own children. The message was aired again by PBS during the media storm that preceded the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Other television work In 1994, Rogers created another one-time special for PBS called Fred Rogers' Heroes, which consisted of documentary portraits of four real-life people whose work helped make their communities better. Rogers, uncharacteristically dressed in a suit and tie, hosted in wraparound segments that did not use the "Neighborhood" set.

For a time, Rogers produced specials for parents as a precursor to the subject of the week on the Neighborhood called "Mister Rogers Talks To Parents About [topic]". Rogers didn't host those specials, but instead invited news announcers, such as Joan Lunden (who hosted the Conflict special), to take on the emcee duties in front of a gallery of parents while Rogers answered questions from them. These specials were made to prepare parents for questions their children might ask after watching the episodes on the topic of the week.

The only time Rogers appeared on television as someone other than himself was in 1996 when he played a preacher on one episode of Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman.[4]

In the mid-1980s, the Burger King fast-food chain lampooned Rogers' image with an actor called "Mr. Rodney", imitating Rogers' television character.[31] Rogers found the character's pitching fast food as confusing to children, and called a press conference in which he stated that he did not endorse the company's use of his character or likeness (Rogers did no commercial endorsements of any kind throughout his career, though, over the years, he acted as a pitchman for several non-profit organizations dedicated to learning). The chain publicly apologized for the faux pas and pulled the ads.[32] By contrast, Fred Rogers found Eddie Murphy's parody of his show on Saturday Night Live, "Mister Robinson's Neighborhood," amusing and affectionate; the parody was also initially broadcast at a time of night when his own child audience was not likely to see it.[33]

Rogers voiced himself on the "Arthur Meets Mister Rogers" segment of the PBS Kids series Arthur.[34]

In 1998, Rogers appeared as himself on an episode of Candid Camera as the victim of one of the show's pranks. He was the only one who took the prank with great humor rather than being left angered like the other victims.

Emmys for programming Mister Rogers' Neighborhood won four Emmy awards, and Rogers himself was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 1997 Daytime Emmys,[35] as described by Esquire's Tom Junod:

Mister Rogers went onstage to accept the award-and there, in front of all the soap opera stars and talk show sinceratrons, in front of all the jutting man-tanned jaws and jutting saltwater bosoms, he made his small bow and said into the microphone, "All of us have special ones who have loved us into being. Would you just take, along with me, ten seconds to think of the people who have helped you become who you are. Ten seconds of silence."

And then he lifted his wrist, looked at the audience, looked at his watch, and said, "I'll watch the time." There was, at first, a small whoop from the crowd, a giddy, strangled hiccup of laughter, as people realized that he wasn't kidding, that Mister Rogers was not some convenient eunuch, but rather a man, an authority figure who actually expected them to do what he asked. And so they did. One second, two seconds, three seconds-and now the jaws clenched, and the bosoms heaved, and the mascara ran, and the tears fell upon the beglittered gathering like rain leaking down a crystal chandelier. And Mister Rogers finally looked up from his watch and said softly, "May God be with you" to all his vanquished children.[16][36]

Other works Rogers wrote many of the songs that were used on his television program, and more than 36 books including:

Mister Rogers Talks with Parents (1983) Eight New Experiences titles: Moving Going to the Doctor Going to the Hospital Going to Day Care Going to the Potty Making Friends The New Baby When a Pet Dies You Are Special: Words of Wisdom from America's Most Beloved Neighbor (1994) The World According to Mister Rogers: Important Things to Remember (2003) Advocacy

Rogers meeting with President George W. Bush in 2002. PBS funding In 1969, Rogers appeared before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Communications. His goal was to support funding for PBS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, in response to significant proposed cuts. In about six minutes of testimony, Rogers spoke of the need for social and emotional education that public television provided. He passionately argued that alternative television programming like his Neighborhood helped encourage children to become happy and productive citizens, sometimes opposing less positive messages in media and in popular culture. He even recited the lyrics to one of his songs.[37]

The chairman of the subcommittee, John O. Pastore, was not previously familiar with Rogers' work and was sometimes described as impatient. However, he reported that the testimony had given him goosebumps, and declared, "I think it's wonderful. Looks like you just earned the $20 million." The subsequent congressional appropriation, for 1971, increased PBS funding from $9 million to $22 million.[38]

VCR During the controversy surrounding the introduction of the household VCR, Rogers was involved in supporting the manufacturers of VCRs in court. His 1979 testimony, in the case Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., noted that he did not object to home recordings of his television programs, for instance, by families in order to watch them together at a later time. This testimony contrasted with the views of others in the television industry who objected to home recordings or believed that devices to facilitate it should be taxed or regulated.

When the case reached the Supreme Court in 1983, the majority decision considered the testimony of Rogers when it held that the Betamax video recorder did not infringe copyright. The Court stated that his views were a notable piece of evidence "that many [television] producers are willing to allow private time-shifting to continue" and even quoted his testimony in a footnote:

Some public stations, as well as commercial stations, program the "Neighborhood" at hours when some children cannot use it ... I have always felt that with the advent of all of this new technology that allows people to tape the "Neighborhood" off-the-air, and I'm speaking for the "Neighborhood" because that's what I produce, that they then become much more active in the programming of their family's television life. Very frankly, I am opposed to people being programmed by others. My whole approach in broadcasting has always been "You are an important person just the way you are. You can make healthy decisions." Maybe I'm going on too long, but I just feel that anything that allows a person to be more active in the control of his or her life, in a healthy way, is important.[39]

Death and memorials

The Fred Rogers Memorial Statue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Created by Robert Berks, and opened to the public on November 5, 2009. Rogers was diagnosed with stomach cancer in December 2002. He underwent surgery on January 6, 2003, which was unsuccessful.[7][40] A week earlier, he served as grand marshal of the Tournament of Roses Parade, with Art Linkletter and Bill Cosby.[41]

Rogers died on the morning of February 27, 2003, at his home with his wife by his side, less than a month before he would have turned 75.[7][42] His death was such a significant event in Pittsburgh that most of the front page of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette published the next day and an entire section of the paper devoted its coverage to him.[43] The Reverend William P. Barker presided over a public memorial in Pittsburgh. More than 2,700 people attended the memorial at Heinz Hall, including former Good Morning America host David Hartman; Teresa Heinz Kerry; philanthropist Elsie Hillman; PBS President Pat Mitchell; Arthur creator Marc Brown; and Eric Carle, the author-illustrator of The Very Hungry Caterpillar.[14] Speakers remembered Rogers' love of children, devotion to his religion, enthusiasm for music, and quirks. Teresa Heinz Kerry said of Rogers, "He never condescended, just invited us into his conversation. He spoke to us as the people we were, not as the people others wished we were."[44] Rogers is interred at Unity Cemetery in Latrobe.

The Blue's Clues episode "Our Neighborhood Festival" featured a dedication to Rogers at the end of the episode which read: "In Loving Memory of Fred Rogers. The neighborhood won't be the same without you."[45]

Awards and honors On New Year's Day 2004, Michael Keaton, who had been a stagehand on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood before becoming an actor, hosted the PBS TV special Fred Rogers: America's Favorite Neighbor. It was released on DVD September 28 that year. To mark what would have been his 80th birthday, Rogers' production company sponsored several events to memorialize him, including "Won't You Wear a Sweater Day", during which fans and neighbors were asked to wear their favorite sweaters in celebration.[46] The event takes place annually on his birthday, March 20.[47]

Rogers received the Ralph Lowell Award in 1975.[48] The television industry honored Rogers with a George Foster Peabody Award "in recognition of 25 years of beautiful days in the neighborhood" in 1992;[49] previously, he had shared a Peabody award for Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in 1968. Also in 1992, he was initiated as an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity, the national fraternity for men of music.[50] Rogers was a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international professional music fraternity.[51] He was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1999.[52] One of Rogers' iconic sweaters was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution, which displays it as a "Treasure of American History".[53] In 2002, Rogers received the PNC Commonwealth Award in Mass Communications.[54]

In 1991, the Pittsburgh Penguins named Rogers as their celebrity captain, as part of a celebration of the National Hockey League's 75th anniversary,[55] based on his connections to Pennsylvania and Pittsburgh. Card #297 from the 1992 NHL Pro Set Platinum collection commemorated the event, making Fred one of only twelve celebrity captains to be chosen for a sports card.[56]

"Interpretations of Oakland" by John Laidacker George W. Bush awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2002, for his contributions to children's education, saying that "Fred Rogers has proven that television can soothe the soul and nurture the spirit and teach the very young". A year later, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed Resolution 16 to commemorate the life of Fred Rogers.[1] It read, in part, "Through his spirituality and placid nature, Mr. Rogers was able to reach out to our nation's children and encourage each of them to understand the important role they play in their communities and as part of their families. More importantly, he did not shy away from dealing with difficult issues of death and divorce but rather encouraged children to express their emotions in a healthy, constructive manner, often providing a simple answer to life's hardships." Following Rogers' death, the U.S. House of Representatives in 2003 unanimously passed Resolution 111 honoring Rogers for "his legendary service to the improvement of the lives of children, his steadfast commitment to demonstrating the power of compassion, and his dedication to spreading kindness through example."[57] Civil Rights Movement involvement I would like to think because of the things I did, my daughter can do the things that she does. She barely has a recognition that she's black. -Jackson reflecting on his actions during the Civil Rights Movement[9] After the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Jackson attended the funeral in Atlanta as one of the ushers.[14] Jackson then flew to Memphis to join an equal rights protest march. In a Parade interview Jackson revealed: "I was angry about the assassination, but I wasn't shocked by it. I knew that change was going to take something different - not sit-ins, not peaceful coexistence."[15]

In 1969, Jackson and several other students held members of the Morehouse College board of trustees (including a nearby Martin Luther King, Sr.) hostage on the campus, demanding reform in the school's curriculum and governance.[16] The college eventually agreed to change its policy, but Jackson was charged with and eventually convicted of unlawful confinement, a second-degree felony.[17] Jackson was then suspended for two years for his criminal record and his actions. He would later return to the college to earn his Bachelor of Arts in Drama in 1972.[18]

While he was suspended, Jackson was employed as a social worker in Los Angeles.[19] Jackson decided to return to Atlanta, where he met with Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, and others active in the Black Power movement.[15] Jackson revealed in the same Parade interview that he began to feel empowered with his involvement in the movement, especially when the group began buying guns.[15] However, before Jackson could become involved with any significant armed confrontation, his mother sent him to Los Angeles after the FBI told her that he would die within a year if he remained with the Black Power movement.[15]

Acting career 1970s-1980s Casting black actors is still strange for Hollywood. Denzel gets the offer first. Then it's Danny Glover, Forest Whitaker and Wesley Snipes. Right now, I'm the next one on the list. -Jackson reacting to his new fame in 1993[19] Jackson initially majored in marine biology at Morehouse College before switching to architecture. He later settled on drama after taking a public speaking class and appearing in a version of The Threepenny Opera.[10] Jackson began acting in multiple plays, including Home and A Soldier's Play.[5] He appeared in several television films, and made his feature film debut in the blaxploitation independent film Together for Days (1972).[20] After these initial roles, Jackson proceeded to move from Atlanta to New York City in 1976 and spent the next decade appearing in stage plays such as The Piano Lesson and Two Trains Running, which both premiered at the Yale Repertory Theater.[19][21] At this point in his early career, Jackson developed addictions to alcohol and cocaine, resulting in him being unable to proceed with the two plays as they continued to Broadway (actors Charles S. Dutton and Anthony Chisholm took his place).[18] Throughout his early film career, mainly in minimal roles in films such as Coming to America and various television films, Jackson was mentored by Morgan Freeman.[10] After a 1981 performance in the play A Soldier's Play, Jackson was introduced to director Spike Lee who would later include him in small roles for the films School Daze (1988) and Do the Right Thing (1989).[5][22] He also played a minor role in the 1990 Martin Scorsese film Goodfellas as real-life Mafia associate Stacks Edwards and also worked as a stand-in on The Cosby Show for Bill Cosby[16][23] for three years.

1990s While completing these films, Jackson's drug addiction had worsened. After previously overdosing on heroin several times, Jackson gave up the drug in favor of cocaine.[24] After seeing the effects of his addiction, his family entered him into a New York rehab clinic.[10][25] When he successfully completed rehab, Jackson appeared in Jungle Fever, as a crack cocaine addict, a role which Jackson called cathartic as he was recovering from his addiction.[5] Jackson commented on the transition, "It was a funny kind of thing. By the time I was out of rehab, about a week or so later I was on set and we were ready to start shooting."[26] The film was so acclaimed that the 1991 Cannes Film Festival created a special "Supporting Actor" award just for him.[6][27] After this role, Jackson became involved with multiple films, including the comedy Strictly Business and dramas Juice and Patriot Games. He then moved on to two other comedies: National Lampoon's Loaded Weapon 1 (his first starring role) and Amos & Andrew.[28][29] Jackson then worked with director Steven Spielberg, appearing in Jurassic Park.[30]

Jackson at the premiere for Cleaner in Paris, April 2008 After a turn as the criminal Big Don in the 1993 Quentin Tarantino-penned True Romance directed by Tony Scott, Tarantino contacted Jackson for the role of Jules Winnfield in Pulp Fiction. Jackson was surprised to learn that the part had been specifically written for him: "To know that somebody had written something like Jules for me. I was overwhelmed, thankful, arrogant - this whole combination of things that you could be, knowing that somebody's going to give you an opportunity like that."[31] Although Pulp Fiction was Jackson's thirtieth film, the role made him internationally recognized and he received praise from critics. In a review by Entertainment Weekly, his role was commended: "As superb as Travolta, Willis, and Keitel are, the actor who reigns over Pulp Fiction is Samuel L. Jackson. He just about lights fires with his gremlin eyes and he transforms his speeches into hypnotic bebop soliloquies."[32] For the Academy Awards, Miramax Films pushed for the Best Supporting Actor nomination for Jackson.[33] For his performance, Jackson received a Best Supporting Actor nomination. In addition, he received a Golden Globe nomination and won the BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Role.[34][35][36]

After Pulp Fiction, Jackson received multiple scripts to play his next role: "I could easily have made a career out of playing Jules over the years. Everybody's always sending me the script they think is the new Pulp Fiction."[37] With a succession of poor-performing films such as Kiss of Death, The Great White Hype, and Losing Isaiah, Jackson began to receive poor reviews from critics who had praised his performance in Pulp Fiction. This ended with his involvement in the two successful box office films, Die Hard with a Vengeance, starring alongside Bruce Willis in the third installment of the Die Hard series, and A Time to Kill, where he depicted a father who is put on trial for killing two men who raped his daughter.[38][39] For A Time to Kill, Jackson earned an NAACP Image for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture and a Golden Globe nomination for a Best Supporting Actor.[40]

Quickly becoming a box office star, Jackson continued with three starring roles in 1997. In 187 he played a dedicated teacher striving to leave an impact on his students.[41] He received an Independent Spirit award for Best First Feature alongside first-time writer/director Kasi Lemmons in the drama Eve's Bayou, for which he also served as executive producer.[42] He joined up again with Tarantino and received the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the Berlin Film Festival[43] and a fourth Golden Globe nomination for his portrayal of arms merchant Ordell Robbie in Jackie Brown.[44] In 1998, he worked with other established actors such as Sharon Stone and Dustin Hoffman in Sphere and Kevin Spacey in The Negotiator, playing a hostage negotiator who resorts to taking hostages himself when he is falsely accused of murder and embezzlement.[45][46] In 1999, Jackson starred in the horror film Deep Blue Sea, and as Jedi Master Mace Windu in George Lucas' Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace.[47][48] In an interview, Jackson claimed that he did not have a chance to read the script for the film and did not learn he was playing the character Mace Windu until he was fitted for his costume (he later said that he was eager to accept any role, just for the chance to be a part of the Star Wars saga).[49]


Jackson's handprints in front of The Great Movie Ride at Walt Disney World's Disney's Hollywood Studios theme park.

Jackson at the 2005 Cannes Film Festival On June 13, 2000, Jackson was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7018 Hollywood Blvd.[50] He began the next decade in his film career as a Marine colonel put on trial in Rules of Engagement, co-starred with Bruce Willis for a third time in the supernatural thriller Unbreakable, and starred in the 2000 remake of the 1971 film Shaft.[51][52][53] Jackson's sole film in 2001 was The Caveman's Valentine, a murder thriller in which he played a homeless musician. The film was directed by Kasi Lemmons, who previously worked with Jackson in Eve's Bayou.[54] In 2002, he played a recovering alcoholic attempting to keep custody of his kids while fighting a battle of wits with Ben Affleck's character in Changing Lanes.[5] He returned for Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones, seeing his minor supporting role develop into a major character. Mace Windu's purple lightsaber in the film was the result of Jackson's suggestion;[5] he wanted to be sure that his character would stand out in a crowded battle scene.[55][56] Jackson then acted as an NSA agent alongside Vin Diesel in xXx and a kilt-wearing drug dealer in The 51st State.[57][58] In 2003, Jackson again worked with John Travolta in Basic and then as a police sergeant alongside Colin Farrell in the television show remake S.W.A.T.[59][60] A song within the soundtrack was named after him, entitled Sammy L. Jackson by Hot Action Cop.[61] Jackson also appeared in HBO's documentary Unchained Memories, as a narrator along many other stars like Angela Bassett and Whoopi Goldberg. According to reviews gathered by Rotten Tomatoes, in 2004 Jackson starred in both his lowest and highest ranked films in his career.[62] In the thriller Twisted, Jackson played a mentor to Ashley Judd.[63] The film garnered a 2% approval rating on the website, with reviewers calling his performance "lackluster" and "wasted".[64][65][66] He then lent his voice to the computer-animated film The Incredibles as the superhero Frozone.[67] The film received a 97% approval rating, and Jackson's performance earned him an Annie Award nomination for Best Voice Acting.[68][69] He then went on to do a cameo in another Quentin Tarantino film, Kill Bill: Volume 2.[70]

In 2005, he starred in the sports drama, Coach Carter, where he played a coach (based on the actual coach Ken Carter) dedicated to teaching his players that education is more important than basketball.[71] Although the film received mixed reviews, Jackson's performance was praised despite the film's storyline.[72][73] Bob Townsend of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution commended Jackson's performance, "He takes what could have been a cardboard cliche role and puts flesh on it with his flamboyant intelligence."[74] Jackson also returned for two sequels: XXX: State of the Union, this time commanding Ice Cube, and the final Star Wars prequel film, Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith.[75][76] His last film for 2005 was The Man alongside comedian Eugene Levy.[77] On November 4, 2005, he was presented with the Hawaii International Film Festival Achievement in Acting Award.[78]

On January 30, 2006, Jackson was honored with a hand and footprint ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theater; he is the seventh African American and 191st actor to be recognized in this manner.[79] He next starred opposite actress Julianne Moore in the box office bomb Freedomland, where he depicted a police detective attempting to help a mother find her abducted child while quelling a citywide race riot.[80][81] Jackson's second film of the year, Snakes on a Plane, gained cult film status months before it was released based on its title and cast.[82] Jackson's decision to star in the film was solely based on the title.[83] To build anticipation for the film, he also cameoed in the 2006 music video "Snakes on a Plane (Bring It)" by Cobra Starship. On December 2, 2006, Jackson won the German Bambi Award for International Film, based on his many film contributions.[84] In December 2006, Jackson starred in Home of the Brave, as a doctor returning home from the Iraq War.[85]

Jackson at the 2010 Comic Con in San Diego. On January 30, 2007, Jackson was featured as narrator in Bob Saget's direct-to-DVD Farce of the Penguins.[86] The film was a spoof of the box office success March of the Penguins (which was narrated by Morgan Freeman).[87] Also in 2007, he portrayed a blues player who imprisons a young woman (Christina Ricci) addicted to sex in Black Snake Moan, and the horror film 1408, an adaptation of the Stephen King short story.[88][89] Later the same year, Jackson portrayed an athlete who impersonates former boxing heavyweight Bob Satterfield in director Rod Lurie's drama, Resurrecting the Champ. In 2008, Jackson reprised his role of Mace Windu in the CGI film, Star Wars: The Clone Wars, followed by Lakeview Terrace where he played a racist cop who terrorizes an interracial couple.[90][91] In November of the same year, he starred along with Bernie Mac and Isaac Hayes (who both died before the film's release) in Soul Men.[92] In 2008, he portrayed the villain in The Spirit, which was poorly received by critics and the box office.[93][94] In 2009, he again worked with Quentin Tarantino when he narrated several scenes in the World War II film, Inglourious Basterds.[95]

2010s In 2010, he starred in the drama Mother and Child and portrayed an interrogator who attempts to locate several nuclear weapons in the direct-to-video film Unthinkable.[96][97] Alongside Dwayne Johnson, Jackson again portrayed a police officer in the opening scenes of the comedy The Other Guys. He also co-starred with Tommy Lee Jones for a film adaptation of The Sunset Limited.

Throughout Jackson's career, he has appeared in many films alongside mainstream rappers. These include Tupac Shakur (Juice), Queen Latifah (Juice/Sphere/Jungle Fever), Method Man (One Eight Seven), LL Cool J (Deep Blue Sea/S.W.A.T.), Busta Rhymes (Shaft), Eve (xXx), Ice Cube (xXx: State of the Union), Xzibit (xXx: State of the Union), David Banner (Black Snake Moan), and 50 Cent (Home of the Brave).[98] Additionally, Jackson has appeared in four films with actor Bruce Willis (National Lampoon's Loaded Weapon 1, Pulp Fiction, Die Hard with a Vengeance, and Unbreakable) and the actors were slated to work together in Black Water Transit before both dropped out.[99]

In 2002, Jackson gave his consent for Marvel Comics to design their "Ultimate" version of the character Nick Fury after his likeness.[100] In the 2008 film Iron Man, he made a cameo as the character in a post-credit scene.[101] In February 2009, Jackson signed on to a nine-picture deal with Marvel which would see him appear as the character in Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and The Avengers as well as any other sequels they would produce.[102] He reprised the role in Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)[103] and Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).[104] Jackson said in an interview on February 11, 2015, that he only has two movies left on his Marvel contract following Ultron.[105]

Among his more recent film roles, Jackson appeared in Quentin Tarantino's Django Unchained, which was released December 25, 2012,[106] Tarantino's The Hateful Eight, which was released in 70mm on December 25, 2015,[107] and Jordan Vogt-Roberts' Kong: Skull Island,[108] which was released on March 10, 2017.

Upcoming films Jackson is set to produce a live-action film adaptation of Afro Samurai,[109] and is assuming the role of Sho'nuff in a remake of The Last Dragon.[110] He will also star in the Brie Larson film Unicorn Store.[111][112] Jackson is featured in Eating You Alive, a 2016 American documentary about food and health.

Television and other roles In addition to films, Jackson also appeared in several television shows, a video game, music videos, as well as audiobooks. Jackson had a small part in the Public Enemy music video for "911 Is a Joke". Jackson voiced several television show characters, including the lead role in the anime series, Afro Samurai, in addition to a recurring part as the voice of Gin Rummy in several episodes of the animated series The Boondocks.[113][114] He guest-starred as himself in an episode of the BBC/HBO sitcom Extras.[115] He voiced the main antagonist, Officer Frank Tenpenny, in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas.[116] Jackson also hosted a variety of awards shows. He has hosted the MTV Movie Awards (1998),[117] the ESPYs (1999, 2001, 2002, and 2009),[118] and the Spike TV Video Game Awards (2005, 2006, 2007, and 2012).[119] In November 2006, he provided the voice of God for The Bible Experience, the New Testament audiobook version of the Bible. He was given the lead role because producers believed his deep, authoritative voice would best fit the role.[120] He also recorded the audiobook of Go the Fuck to Sleep.[121] For the Atlanta Falcons' 2010 season, Jackson portrayed Rev. Sultan in the Falcons "Rise Up" commercial.

He reprised his role as Nick Fury in a cameo appearance on Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. in 2013[122] and the season finale in 2014.[123]

He also appeared in the Capital One cash-back credit card commercials.

Jackson released a song about social justice with KRS-One, Sticky Fingaz, Mad Lion & Talib Kweli about violence in America called "I Can't Breathe" which were the last words said by Eric Garner.[124]

Box office performance Jackson has said that he chooses roles that are "exciting to watch" and have an "interesting character inside of a story", and that in his roles he wanted to "do things [he hasn't] done, things [he] saw as a kid and wanted to do and now [has] an opportunity to do".[125] Throughout the 1990s, A.C. Neilson E.C.I., a box office tracking company, determined that Jackson appeared in more films than any other actor that grossed $1.7 billion domestically.[126] For all the films in his career, where he is featured as a leading actor or supporting co-star, his films have grossed a total of $2.81[127] to $4.91 billion[128] at the North American box office, placing him as the seventh (as strictly lead) or the second highest-grossing movie star (counting supporting roles) of all time; behind only that of voice actor Frank Welker. The 2009 edition of The Guinness World Records, which uses a different calculation to determine film grosses, stated that Jackson is the world's highest grossing actor, having earned $7.42 billion in 68 films.[129]

Filmography Main article: Samuel L. Jackson filmography Personal life

Jackson with his wife LaTanya Richardson in 2005 In 1980, Jackson married actress and sports channel producer LaTanya Richardson,[130] whom he met while attending Morehouse College.[5] The couple have a daughter, Zoe (born 1982).[131] In 2009, they started their own charitable organization to help support education.[130] Jackson has said he attends each of his films in theaters with paying customers, saying: "Even during my theater years, I wished I could watch the plays I was in - while I was in them! I dig watching myself work."[132] He also enjoys collecting the action figures of the characters he portrays in his films, including Jules Winnfield, Shaft, Mace Windu, and Frozone.[133]

Jackson with his daughter Zoe in 2004 Jackson is bald but enjoys wearing wigs in his films.[134] He said about his decision to go bald: "I keep ending up on those bald is beautiful lists. It's cool. You know, when I started losing my hair it was during the era when everybody had lots of hair. All of a sudden I felt this big hole in the middle of my afro, I couldn't face having a comb over so I had to quickly figure what the haircut for me was."[134] His first bald role was in The Great White Hype.[135] He usually gets to pick his own hairstyles for each character he portrays.[135][136] He poked fun at his baldness the first time he appeared bald on The Tonight Show, explaining that he had to shave his head for one role, but then kept receiving more and more bald roles and had to keep shaving his head so that wigs could be made for him. He joked that "the only way I'm gonna have time to grow my hair back is if I'm not working".

Jackson has a clause in his film contracts that allows him to play golf during film shoots.[9][34] He has played in the Gary Player Invitational charity golf tournament to assist Gary Player in raising funds for children in South Africa.[10] Jackson is a keen basketball fan, supporting the Toronto Raptors and the Harlem Globetrotters.[137] He supports the soccer team Liverpool F.C. since appearing in The 51st State.[138] He also supports Irish soccer team Bohemian F.C.

Jackson campaigned during the 2008 Democratic Primary for Barack Obama in Texarkana, Texas. He said: "Barack Obama represents everything I was told I could be growing up. I am a child of segregation. When I grew up and people told me I could be president, I knew it was a lie. But now we have a representative... the American Dream is a reality. Anyone can grow up to be a president."[139] Jackson also said: "I voted for Barack because he was black. That's why other folks vote for other people - because they look like them".[140][141] He compared his Django Unchained character, a villainous house slave, to black conservative Justice Clarence Thomas, saying that "I have the same moral compass as Clarence Thomas does".[142]

In June 2013, Jackson launched a joint campaign with the charity Prizeo in an effort to raise money to fight Alzheimer's disease. As part of the campaign, he recited various fan-written monologues and a popular scene from the AMC series Breaking Bad.[143][144] In August 2013, he started a vegan diet for health reasons, explaining that he is "just trying to live forever",[145] and attributes a 40 lb weight loss to his new diet.[146] He launched a campaign called "One for the Boys", which teaches men about testicular cancer and urges them to "get themselves checked out".[147][148] Awards and nominations Academy Awards Year Title Category Result 1994 Pulp Fiction Best Supporting Actor[1] Nominated BAFTA Awards Year Title Category Result 1994 Pulp Fiction Best Actor in a Supporting Role[2] Won Black Reel Awards Year Title Category Result 2001 Shaft Best Actor Nominated 2002 The Caveman's Valentine Nominated 2003 Changing Lanes Nominated 2005 Coach Carter Nominated 2010 Mother and Child Best Supporting Actor Nominated 2013 Django Unchained Won Golden Globe Awards Year Title Category Result 1994 Against the Wall Best Performance by an Actor in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television[3] Nominated Pulp Fiction Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture[3] Nominated 1996 A Time to Kill Nominated 1997 Jackie Brown Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy[3] Nominated Independent Spirit Awards Year Title Category Result 1994 Pulp Fiction Best Male Lead Won 1996 Hard Eight Best Supporting Male Nominated 1997 Eve's Bayou Best First Feature Won 2010 Mother and Child Best Supporting Male Nominated MTV Movie Awards Year Title Category Result 1994 Pulp Fiction Best On-Screen Duo (shared with John Travolta) Nominated 2013 Django Unchained Best WTF Moment (shared with Jamie Foxx) Won Best On-Screen Duo (shared with Leonardo DiCaprio) Nominated 2016 Kingsman: The Secret Service Best Villain Nominated NAACP Image Awards Year Title Category Result 1997 The Long Kiss Goodnight Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture Nominated A Time to Kill Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture Won 1998 Eve's Bayou Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture Nominated 1999 The Negotiator Nominated 2001 Shaft Nominated 2003 Changing Lanes Nominated 2004 S.W.A.T. Nominated 2006 Coach Carter Won 2011 Mother and Child Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture Won 2013 Django Unchained Won Saturn Awards Year Title Category Result 2015 Captain America: The Winter Soldier Best Supporting Actor Nominated[4] Screen Actors Guild Awards Year Title Category Result 1994 Pulp Fiction Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Won Film critic awards Year Title Category Result 1991 Jungle Fever Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Won New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Won Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Nominated 1994 Pulp Fiction Society of Texas Film Critics Award for Best Actor Won National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor Nominated National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor Nominated New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Nominated Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Nominated 1997 One Eight Seven San Diego Film Critics Society's Body of Work Award Won Eve's Bayou Won Jackie Brown Won Miscellaneous awards Year Title Category Result 1997 Eve's Bayou Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture Won Jackie Brown Silver Bear for Best Actor[5] Won 2004 Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas Spike Video Game Awards for Best Performance by a Human Male Won 2008 Iron Man IGN Award for Best Cameo[6] Won 2011 Thor IGN Award for Favorite Cameo Nominated 1972 Together for Days Stan Lee 1980 The Exterminator Uncredited Extra 1981 Ragtime Gang Member No. 2 1987 Magic Sticks Bum Credited as Sam Jackson 1987 Eddie Murphy Raw Eddie's Uncle Comedy sketch[19] 1988 Coming to America Hold-Up Man School Daze Leeds 1989 Do the Right Thing Mister Señor Love Daddy Sea of Love Black Guy 1990 Def by Temptation Minister Garth A Shock to the System Ulysses Betsy's Wedding Taxi Dispatcher Mo' Better Blues Madlock The Exorcist III Blind Dream Man Goodfellas Parnell Steven "Stacks" Edwards The Return of Superfly Nate Cabot 1991 Strictly Business Monroe Jungle Fever Gator Purify 1992 Juice Trip Patriot Games LCDR Robby Jackson White Sands Greg Meeker Jumpin' at the Boneyard Mr. Simpson[20] Johnny Suede B-Bop Fathers & Sons Marshall 1993 Menace II Society Tat Lawson Loaded Weapon 1 Sgt. Wes Luger Amos & Andrew Andrew Sterling Jurassic Park John Raymond Arnold True Romance Big Don 1994 Fresh Sam Pulp Fiction Jules Winnfield The New Age Dale Hail Caesar Mailman Assault at West Point: The Court-Martial of Johnson Whittaker Richard Theodore Greener 1995 Kiss of Death Calvin Hart Die Hard with a Vengeance Zeus Carver Losing Isaiah Kadar Lewis Fluke Rumbo Voice 1996 The Great White Hype Rev. Fred Sultan A Time to Kill Carl Lee Hailey The Long Kiss Goodnight Mitch Henessey Hard Eight Jimmy Trees Lounge Wendell Teens and Guns: Preventing Violence Himself Used in schools[21][22] The Search for One-eye Jimmy Colonel Ron 1997 One Eight Seven Trevor Garfield Eve's Bayou Louis Batiste Producer Jackie Brown Ordell Robbie 1998 Sphere Harry Adams The Negotiator Lt. Danny Roman The Red Violin Charles Morritz Out of Sight Hejira Henry Uncredited 1999 Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace Mace Windu Deep Blue Sea Russell Franklin 2000 Rules of Engagement Col. Terry L. Childers Shaft John Shaft Unbreakable Elijah Price / Mr. Glass 2001 The Caveman's Valentine Romulus Ledbetter Executive producer The 51st State Elmo McElroy 2002 Changing Lanes Doyle Gipson Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones Mace Windu xXx Agent Augustus Gibbons No Good Deed Jack Friar 2003 Basic Sergeant Nathan West S.W.A.T. Sgt. Dan "Hondo" Harrelson 1 1 Star Wars: The Force Awakens BV $936,662,225 2015 2 2 Avatar Fox $760,507,625 2009^ 3 3 Titanic Par. $659,363,944 1997^ 4 4 Jurassic World Uni. $652,270,625 2015 5 5 Marvel's The Avengers BV $623,357,910 2012 6 6 Star Wars: The Last Jedi BV $618,759,894 2017 7 7 The Dark Knight WB $534,858,444 2008^ 8 8 Rogue One: A Star Wars Story BV $532,177,324 2016 9 13 Avengers: Age of Ultron BV $459,005,868 2015 10 14 The Dark Knight Rises WB $448,139,099 2012 11 17 The Hunger Games: Catching Fire LGF $424,668,047 2013 12 18 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest BV $423,315,812 2006 13 21 Wonder Woman WB $412,563,408 2017 14 22 Black Panther BV $411,711,738 2018 15 23 Iron Man 3 BV $409,013,994 2013 16 24 Captain America: Civil War BV $408,084,349 2016 17 25 The Hunger Games LGF $408,010,692 2012 18 26 Spider-Man Sony $403,706,375 2002 19 27 Jurassic Park Uni. $402,453,882 1993^ 20 28 Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen P/DW $402,111,870 2009 21 30 Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 BV $389,813,101 2017 22 31 Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle Sony $387,595,444 2017 23 32 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 WB $381,011,219 2011 24 34 Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith Fox $380,270,577 2005^ 25 35 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King NL $377,845,905 2003^ 26 36 Spider-Man 2 Sony $373,585,825 2004 27 43 Furious 7 Uni. $353,007,020 2015 28 44 Transformers: Dark of the Moon P/DW $352,390,543 2011 29 46 The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers NL $342,551,365 2002^ 30 48 The Hunger Games: Mockingjay - Part 1 LGF $337,135,885 2014 31 49 Spider-Man 3 Sony $336,530,303 2007 32 51 Spider-Man: Homecoming Sony $334,201,140 2017 33 53 Guardians of the Galaxy BV $333,176,600 2014 34 54 Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice WB $330,360,194 2016 35 55 Forrest Gump Par. $330,252,182 1994^ 36 57 Suicide Squad WB $325,100,054 2016 37 59 Transformers P/DW $319,246,193 2007 38 60 Iron Man Par. $318,412,101 2008 39 62 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Par. $317,101,119 2008 40 63 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring NL $315,544,750 2001^ 41 64 Thor: Ragnarok BV $314,821,462 2017 42 65 Iron Man 2 Par. $312,433,331 2010 43 67 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End BV $309,420,425 2007 44 69 Independence Day Fox $306,169,268 1996^ 45 70 Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl BV $305,413,918 2003 46 71 Skyfall Sony $304,360,277 2012 47 72 The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey WB (NL) $303,003,568 2012 48 74 The Twilight Saga: Eclipse Sum. $300,531,751 2010 49 75 The Twilight Saga: New Moon Sum. $296,623,634 2009 50 76 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1 WB $295,983,305 2010 51 77 The Sixth Sense BV $293,506,292 1999 52 79 Inception WB $292,576,195 2010 53 80 The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn Part 2 LG/S $292,324,737 2012 54 81 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix WB $292,004,738 2007 55 83 Man of Steel WB $291,045,518 2013 56 85 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire WB $290,013,036 2005 57 88 The Hunger Games: Mockingjay - Part 2 LGF $281,723,902 2015 58 90 The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn Part 1 Sum. $281,287,133 2011 59 91 Meet the Fockers Uni. $279,261,160 2004 60 93 Gravity WB $274,092,705 2013 61 98 The Amazing Spider-Man Sony $262,030,663 2012 62 103 Captain America: The Winter Soldier BV $259,766,572 2014 63 104 The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug WB (NL) $258,366,855 2013 64 106 Star Trek Par. $257,730,019 2009 65 107 I Am Legend WB $256,393,010 2007 66 108 The Blind Side WB $255,959,475 2009 67 109 The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies WB (NL) $255,119,788 2014 68 112 Batman WB $251,188,924 1989 69 114 Men in Black Sony $250,690,539 1997 70 119 Transformers: Age of Extinction Par. $245,439,076 2014 71 121 Bruce Almighty Uni. $242,829,261 2003 72 123 Twister WB $241,721,524 1996 73 126 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides BV $241,071,802 2011 74 128 Fast & Furious 6 Uni. $238,679,850 2013 75 132 X-Men: The Last Stand Fox $234,362,462 2006 76 133 War of the Worlds Par. $234,280,354 2005 77 134 Fantastic Beasts and Where To Find Them WB $234,037,575 2016 78 135 X-Men: Days of Future Past Fox $233,921,534 2014 79 136 Cast Away Fox $233,632,142 2000 80 138 Doctor Strange BV $232,641,920 2016 81 139 The Lost World: Jurassic Park Uni. $229,086,679 1997 82 140 Justice League WB $228,895,272 2017 83 141 Star Trek Into Darkness Par. $228,778,661 2013 84 142 The Martian Fox $228,433,663 2015 85 143 Signs BV $227,966,634 2002 86 144 Hancock Sony $227,946,274 2008 87 145 The Bourne Ultimatum Uni. $227,471,070 2007 88 147 Rush Hour 2 NL $226,164,286 2001 89 148 The Fate of the Furious Uni. $226,008,385 2017 90 153 Mrs. Doubtfire Fox $219,195,243 1993 91 156 King Kong Uni. $218,080,025 2005 92 157 Ghost Par. $217,631,306 1990 93 159 The Da Vinci Code Sony $217,536,138 2006 94 165 Mission: Impossible II Par. $215,409,889 2000 95 166 X2: X-Men United Fox $214,949,694 2003 96 168 Austin Powers in Goldmember NL $213,307,889 2002 97 171 Fast Five Uni. $209,837,675 2011 98 172 Mission: Impossible - Ghost Protocol Par. $209,397,903 2011 99 174 Sherlock Holmes WB $209,028,679 2009 100 175 Dawn of the Planet of the Apes Fox $208,545,589 2014 101 177 Batman Begins WB $206,852,432 2005^ 102 180 Thor: The Dark World BV $206,362,140 2013 103 181 Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me NL $206,040,086 1999 104 183 The Amazing Spider-Man 2 Sony $202,853,933 2014 105 184 World War Z Par. $202,359,711 2013 106 185 The Mummy Returns Uni. $202,019,785 2001 107 186 Armageddon BV $201,578,182 1998 108 189 Godzilla (2014) WB $200,676,069 2014 109 190 Superman Returns WB $200,081,192 2006 110 191 Spectre Sony $200,074,609 2015 111 193 Pearl Harbor BV $198,542,554 2001 112 196 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Par. $197,171,806 1989 113 199 Mission: Impossible - Rogue Nation Par. $195,042,377 2015 114 201 Twilight Sum. $192,769,854 2008 115 205 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2014) Par. $191,204,754 2014 116 206 Men in Black II Sony $190,418,803 2002 117 209 Dunkirk WB $188,373,161 2017^ 118 210 Interstellar Par. $188,020,017 2014 119 213 Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows WB $186,848,418 2011 120 214 The Day After Tomorrow Fox $186,740,799 2004 121 216 Mr. & Mrs. Smith Fox $186,336,279 2005 122 218 Pitch Perfect 2 Uni. $184,296,230 2015 123 219 Dances with Wolves Orion $184,208,848 1990 124 220 Batman Forever WB $184,031,112 1995 125 221 The Fugitive WB $183,875,760 1993 126 223 Ocean's Eleven WB $183,417,150 2001 127 224 The Simpsons Movie Fox $183,135,014 2007 128 225 What Women Want Par. $182,811,707 2000 129 226 The Perfect Storm WB $182,618,434 2000 130 227 Lincoln BV $182,207,973 2012 131 228 Liar Liar Uni. $181,410,615 1997 132 229 Jurassic Park III Uni. $181,171,875 2001 133 230 Thor Par. $181,030,624 2011 134 231 Mission: Impossible Par. $180,981,856 1996 135 232 Ant-Man BV $180,202,163 2015 136 233 Planet of the Apes (2001) Fox $180,011,740 2001 137 235 X-Men Origins: Wolverine Fox $179,883,157 2009 138 238 Hitch Sony $179,495,555 2005 139 239 MIB 3 Sony $179,020,854 2012 140 245 Rise of the Planet of the Apes Fox $176,760,185 2011 141 246 Captain America: The First Avenger Par. $176,654,505 2011 142 250 The Bourne Supremacy Uni. $176,241,941 2004 143 254 Crocodile Dundee Par. $174,803,506 1986 144 261 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales BV $172,558,876 2017 145 264 True Grit Par. $171,243,005 2010 146 266 A Beautiful Mind Uni. $170,742,341 2001 147 267 Chicago Mira. $170,687,518 2002 148 268 The Help BV $169,708,112 2011 149 272 Quantum of Solace Sony $168,368,427 2008 150 273 Wild Hogs BV $168,273,550 2007 151 274 Kong: Skull Island WB $168,052,812 2017 152 277 Casino Royale Sony $167,445,960 2006 153 278 Meet the Parents Uni. $166,244,045 2000 154 280 2012 Sony $166,112,167 2009 155 281 Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves WB $165,493,908 1991 156 284 Catch Me If You Can DW $164,615,351 2002 157 285 The Proposal BV $163,958,031 2009 158 286 The Pursuit of Happyness Sony $163,566,459 2006 159 287 Big Daddy Sony $163,479,795 1999 160 288 Clash of the Titans (2010) WB $163,214,888 2010 161 290 Batman Returns WB $162,831,698 1992 162 293 Jason Bourne Uni. $162,434,410 2016 163 294 Grown Ups Sony $162,001,186 2010 164 295 The Waterboy BV $161,491,646 1998 165 299 Die Another Day MGM $160,942,139 2002 166 302 Star Trek Beyond Par. $158,848,340 2016 167 305 The Longest Yard Par. $158,119,460 2005 168 306 X-Men Fox $157,299,717 2000 169 311 What Lies Beneath DW $155,464,351 2000 170 312 X-Men: Apocalypse Fox $155,442,489 2016 171 313 The Mummy Uni. $155,385,488 1999 172 314 Snow White and the Huntsman Uni. $155,332,381 2012 173 315 San Andreas WB (NL) $155,190,832 2015 174 316 Fast and Furious Uni. $155,064,265 2009 175 318 Fantastic Four (2005) Fox $154,696,080 2005 176 329 La La Land LG/S $151,101,803 2016 177 330 Divergent LG/S $150,947,895 2014 178 334 Daddy's Home Par. $150,357,137 2015 179 335 G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra Par. $150,201,498 2009 180 339 Les Miserables (2012) Uni. $148,809,770 2012 181 341 As Good as It Gets Sony $148,478,011 1997 182 342 Little Fockers Uni. $148,438,600 2010 183 345 Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby Sony $148,213,377 2006 184 348 War for the Planet of the Apes Fox $146,880,162 2017 185 349 X-Men: First Class Fox $146,408,305 2011 186 354 Taken Fox $145,000,989 2009 187 356 The Great Gatsby (2013) WB $144,840,419 2013 188 358 I, Robot Fox $144,801,023 2004 189 360 The Fast and the Furious Uni. $144,533,925 2001 190 361 Doctor Dolittle Fox $144,156,605 1998 191 362 Mamma Mia! Uni. $144,130,063 2008 192 365 Juno FoxS $143,495,265 2007 193 368 XXX SonR $142,109,382 2002 194 375 Rush Hour NL $141,186,864 1998 195 377 Deep Impact Par. $140,464,664 1998 196 378 Rush Hour 3 NL $140,125,968 2007 197 379 Look Who's Talking TriS $140,088,813 1989 198 381 Taken 2 Fox $139,854,287 2012 199 391 Split Uni. $138,291,365 2017 200 395 Click SonR $137,355,633 2006

CHART NOTES # Shows the overall all time rank, includes multiple releases. * Lifetime Gross includes multiple releases. ^ Indicates the movie made its gross over multiple releases.

RELATED CHARTS - Opening Weekends by MPAA Rating - Yearly Grosses by MPAA Rating - All Time Domestic - 1 37 The Passion of the Christ NM $370,782,930 2004^ 2 41 Deadpool Fox $363,070,709 2016 3 45 American Sniper WB $350,126,372 2014 4 56 It WB (NL) $327,481,748 2017 5 89 The Matrix Reloaded WB $281,576,461 2003 6 92 The Hangover WB $277,322,503 2009 7 110 The Hangover Part II WB $254,464,305 2011 8 131 Beverly Hills Cop Par. $234,760,478 1984 9 137 The Exorcist WB $232,906,145 1973^ 10 146 Logan Fox $226,277,068 2017 11 155 Ted Uni. $218,815,487 2012 12 162 Saving Private Ryan DW $216,540,909 1998 13 169 300 WB $210,614,939 2007 14 173 Wedding Crashers NL $209,255,921 2005 15 182 Terminator 2: Judgment Day TriS $205,881,154 1991^ 16 203 22 Jump Street Sony $191,719,337 2014 17 211 Gladiator DW $187,705,427 2000 18 222 The Revenant Fox $183,637,894 2015 19 240 Pretty Woman BV $178,406,268 1990 20 248 There's Something About Mary Fox $176,484,651 1998 21 251 Get Out Uni. $176,040,665 2017 22 259 Air Force One Sony $172,956,409 1997 23 260 Rain Man MGM $172,825,435 1988 24 263 The Matrix WB $171,479,930 1999 25 271 Bridesmaids Uni. $169,106,725 2011 26 276 Gone Girl Fox $167,767,189 2014 27 279 Fifty Shades of Grey Uni. $166,167,230 2015 28 283 Hannibal MGM $165,092,268 2001 29 291 Django Unchained Wein. $162,805,434 2012 30 297 Straight Outta Compton Uni. $161,197,785 2015 31 301 The Heat Fox $159,582,188 2013 32 304 The Firm Par. $158,348,367 1993 33 307 Scary Movie Mira. $157,019,771 2000 34 308 Fatal Attraction Par. $156,645,693 1987 35 320 Mad Max: Fury Road WB $154,058,340 2015^ 36 321 Jerry Maguire Sony $153,952,592 1996 37 323 Beverly Hills Cop II Par. $153,665,036 1987 38 327 Sex and the City WB (NL) $152,647,258 2008 39 331 Rambo: First Blood Part II TriS $150,415,432 1985 40 332 We're the Millers WB (NL) $150,394,119 2013 41 333 Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines WB $150,371,112 2003 42 336 Neighbors Uni. $150,157,400 2014 43 337 American Hustle Sony $150,117,807 2013 44 340 Knocked Up Uni. $148,768,917 2007 45 346 Gran Torino WB $148,095,302 2008 46 347 Lethal Weapon 2 WB $147,253,986 1989 47 351 True Lies Fox $146,282,411 1994 48 353 American Pie 2 Uni. $145,103,595 2001 49 359 Lethal Weapon 3 WB $144,731,527 1992 50 371 National Lampoon's Animal House Uni. $141,600,000 1978^ 51 373 A Few Good Men Col. $141,340,178 1992 52 374 Slumdog Millionaire FoxS $141,319,928 2008 53 376 The Blair Witch Project Art. $140,539,099 1999 54 383 The Matrix Revolutions WB $139,313,948 2003 55 385 The King's Speech Wein. $138,797,449 2010^ 56 387 Bad Boys II Sony $138,608,444 2003 57 388 Platoon Orion $138,530,565 1986 58 389 21 Jump Street Sony $138,447,667 2012 59 390 Good Will Hunting Mira. $138,433,435 1997 60 394 The Conjuring WB (NL) $137,400,141 2013 61 396 The Green Mile WB $136,801,374 1999 62 397 Ransom BV $136,492,681 1996 63 400 Argo WB $136,025,503 2012 64 406 The Godfather Par. $134,966,411 1972^ 65 410 Wanted Uni. $134,508,551 2008 66 411 Identity Thief Uni. $134,506,920 2013 67 413 The Rock BV $134,069,511 1996 68 416 Troy WB $133,378,256 2004 69 421 The Departed WB $132,384,315 2006 70 423 Silver Linings Playbook Wein. $132,092,958 2012 71 430 The Silence of the Lambs Orion $130,742,922 1991 72 433 Lethal Weapon 4 WB $130,444,603 1998 73 438 American Gangster Uni. $130,164,645 2007 74 439 American Beauty DW $130,096,601 1999 75 440 An Officer and a Gentleman Par. $129,795,554 1982 76 443 Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan Fox $128,505,958 2006 77 445 Kingsman: The Secret Service Fox $128,261,724 2015 78 447 Coming to America Par. $128,152,301 1988 79 449 Shutter Island Par. $128,012,934 2010 80 464 Lucy Uni. $126,663,600 2014 81 467 Prometheus Fox $126,477,084 2012 82 468 Safe House Uni. $126,373,434 2012 83 471 Erin Brockovich Uni. $125,595,205 2000 84 476 Lone Survivor Uni. $125,095,601 2013 85 485 Traffic USA $124,115,725 2000 86 486 The Birdcage MGM $124,060,553 1996 87 488 Good Morning, Vietnam BV $123,922,370 1987 88 495 The Bodyguard WB $122,006,740 1992^ 89 498 Superbad Sony $121,463,226 2007 90 499 Speed Fox $121,248,145 1994 91 502 Inglourious Basterds Wein. $120,540,719 2009 92 510 Blazing Saddles WB $119,601,481 1974^ 93 513 Total Recall Sony $119,412,921 1990^ 94 516 Fahrenheit 9/11 Lions $119,194,771 2004 95 524 Basic Instinct TriS $117,727,224 1992 96 527 Die Hard 2: Die Harder Fox $117,540,947 1990 97 528 Horrible Bosses WB (NL) $117,538,559 2011 98 530 Jackass 3-D Par. $117,229,692 2010 99 533 The Wolf of Wall Street Par. $116,900,694 2013 100 534 8 Mile Uni. $116,750,901 2002 101 535 Double Jeopardy Par. $116,741,558 1999 102 543 District 9 TriS $115,646,235 2009 103 545 Girls Trip Uni. $115,171,585 2017 104 549 Fifty Shades Darker Uni. $114,581,250 2017 105 555 Magic Mike WB $113,721,571 2012 106 557 The Patriot Sony $113,330,342 2000 107 558 Bad Moms STX $113,257,297 2016 108 562 The Rocky Horror Picture Show Fox $112,892,319 1975 109 563 It's Complicated Uni. $112,735,375 2009 110 566 Face/Off Par. $112,276,146 1997 111 567 The Hangover Part III WB $112,200,072 2013 112 571 Enemy of the State BV $111,549,836 1998 113 574 Porky's Fox $111,289,673 1982^ 114 575 The Last Samurai WB $111,127,263 2003 115 576 Spy Fox $110,825,712 2015 116 577 Tropic Thunder P/DW $110,515,313 2008 117 582 Trainwreck Uni. $110,212,700 2015 118 587 The 40-Year-Old Virgin Uni. $109,449,237 2005 119 590 One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest UA $108,981,275 1975 120 591 A Time to Kill WB $108,766,007 1996 121 592 Black Hawk Down SonR $108,638,745 2001 122 598 Pulp Fiction Mira. $107,928,762 1994 123 599 Paranormal Activity Par. $107,918,810 2009 124 600 Baby Driver TriS $107,825,862 2017 125 603 Watchmen WB $107,509,799 2009 126 607 Black Swan FoxS $106,954,678 2010 127 608 Analyze This WB $106,885,658 1999 128 611 Indecent Proposal Par. $106,614,059 1993 129 613 300: Rise of An Empire WB $106,580,051 2014 130 621 Interview with the Vampire WB $105,264,608 1994 131 626 American Wedding Uni. $104,565,114 2003 132 627 Road to Perdition DW $104,454,762 2002 133 632 Paranormal Activity 3 Par. $104,028,807 2011 134 639 The Expendables LGF $103,068,524 2010 135 640 Scream Dim. $103,046,663 1996 136 643 The General's Daughter Par. $102,705,852 1999 137 645 American Pie Uni. $102,561,004 1999 138 647 The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011) Sony $102,515,793 2011 139 649 The Conjuring 2 WB (NL) $102,470,008 2016 140 651 In the Line of Fire Col. $102,314,823 1993 141 655 Annabelle: Creation WB (NL) $102,092,201 2017 142 656 Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa Par. $102,003,019 2013 143 661 Sleeping with the Enemy Fox $101,599,005 1991 144 662 The Equalizer Sony $101,530,738 2014 145 663 This is the End Sony $101,470,202 2013 146 666 Scream 2 Dim. $101,363,301 1997 147 667 Stir Crazy Col. $101,300,000 1980 148 668 Eraser WB $101,295,562 1996 149 670 Unforgiven WB $101,157,447 1992 150 672 Con Air BV $101,117,573 1997 151 673 Sleepy Hollow Par. $101,071,502 1999 152 674 Collateral DW $101,005,703 2004 153 678 Vanilla Sky Par. $100,618,344 2001 154 680 Due Date WB $100,539,043 2010 155 685 Step Brothers Sony $100,468,793 2008 156 688 Shakespeare in Love Mira. $100,317,794 1998 157 689 Bad Teacher Sony $100,292,856 2011 158 692 Kingsman: The Golden Circle Fox $100,234,838 2017 159 695 Seven NL $100,125,643 1995 160 699 Die Hard: With A Vengeance Fox $100,012,499 1995 161 702 Olympus Has Fallen FD $98,925,640 2013 162 708 Sausage Party Sony $97,685,686 2016 163 710 Public Enemies Uni. $97,104,620 2009 164 714 Panic Room Sony $96,397,334 2002 165 715 Schindler's List Uni. $96,065,768 1993 166 717 Zero Dark Thirty Sony $95,720,716 2012 167 719 Cold Mountain Mira. $95,636,509 2003 168 721 Sex and the City 2 WB (NL) $95,347,692 2010 169 726 The Book of Eli WB $94,835,059 2010 170 729 Saturday Night Fever Par. $94,213,184 1977 171 735 Flight Par. $93,772,375 2012 172 736 The Fighter Par. $93,617,009 2010 173 745 Red Dragon Uni. $93,149,898 2002 174 747 Elysium TriS $93,050,117 2013 175 749 Flashdance Par. $92,921,203 1983 176 750 When Harry Met Sally... Col. $92,823,546 1989 177 751 The Town WB $92,186,262 2010 178 754 Blade Runner 2049 WB $92,054,159 2017 179 755 John Wick: Chapter Two LG/S $92,029,184 2017 180 761 Crimson Tide BV $91,387,195 1995 181 773 Me, Myself and Irene Fox $90,570,999 2000 182 778 Get Hard WB $90,411,453 2015 183 779 Trading Places Par. $90,404,800 1983 184 781 Fifty Shades Freed Uni. $90,368,595 2018 185 784 Mystic River WB $90,135,191 2003 186 791 Don't Breathe SGem $89,217,875 2016 187 792 Scream 3 Dim. $89,143,175 2000 188 794 The Ugly Truth Sony $88,915,214 2009 189 798 Inside Man Uni. $88,513,495 2006 190 802 The Hand That Rocks the Cradle BV $88,036,683 1992 191 806 Pineapple Express Sony $87,341,380 2008 192 810 Sisters Uni. $87,044,645 2015 193 811 Saw II Lions $87,039,965 2005 194 813 The Campaign WB $86,907,746 2012 195 814 The War of the Roses Fox $86,888,546 1989 196 815 The Amityville Horror AIP $86,432,000 1979 197 816 Presumed Innocent WB $86,303,188 1990 198 818 The Accountant WB $86,260,045 2016 199 825 Fury (2014) Sony $85,817,906 2014 200 831 Stripes Col. $85,297,000 1981

CHART NOTES # Shows the overall all time rank, includes multiple releases. * Lifetime Gross includes multiple releases. ^ Indicates the movie made its gross over multiple releases.

RELATED CHARTS - Opening Weekends by MPAA Rating - Yearly Grosses by MPAA Rating - All Time Domestic - Retu The same year, the Presbyterian Church approved an overture "to observe a memorial time for the Reverend Fred M. Rogers" at its General Assembly.[58] The rationale for the recognition of Rogers reads, "The Reverend Fred Rogers, a member of the Presbytery of Pittsburgh, as host of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood since 1968, had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people across the country through his ministry to children and families. Mister Rogers promoted and supported Christian values in the public media with his demonstration of unconditional love. His ability to communicate with children and to help them understand and deal with difficult questions in their lives will be greatly missed."[59]

In 2003, the asteroid 26858 Misterrogers was named after Rogers, by the International Astronomical Union, in an announcement at the Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh. The science center worked with Rogers' Family Communications, Inc. to produce a planetarium show for preschoolers called "The Sky Above Mister Rogers' Neighborhood", which plays at planetariums across the United States.[60][61]

Several buildings, monuments, and works of art are dedicated to Rogers' memory, including a mural sponsored by the Pittsburgh-based Sprout Fund in 2006, "Interpretations of Oakland," by John Laidacker that featured Mr. Rogers.[62] Saint Vincent College in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, completed construction of The Fred M. Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children's Media in 2008.[63] The Fred Rogers Memorial Statue on the North Shore near Heinz Field in Pittsburgh[64] was created by Robert Berks and dedicated in 2009.[65] The statue was placed in front of the surviving footing of the Manchester Bridge, which was cleaned and carved out in order to place the statue there.

In 2015, players of the Altoona Curve, a Double-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates, honored Rogers by wearing special commemorative jerseys that featured a printed facsimile of his classic cardigan and tie ensemble. After the game the jerseys were auctioned off with the proceeds going to the local PBS station, WPSU-TV.[66]

Fred Rogers is scheduled to appear on a US postage stamp in 2018. The issue, showing him as Mister Rogers alongside King Friday XIII, is set to be issued on March 23, 2018, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[67]

Notes Bits of incidental music, such as improvisations from members of the orchestra or music from guests to the program, were not composed by Rogers. The recurring iconic songs, however, were all Rogers' work and fred rogers will be alive.

Production / Development Status - Add

Status: Post-production

Update: 20 May 2018

Comment: Fred Roger's 90th Anniversary: The Best Of Fred Roger's top grossed of films of pg-13 movies and rated r movies in 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000-2003 will be coming soon on April 29, 2018 to blu-ray, dvd and combo pack box sets with uncensored uncut.

Release Dates - Add

Country: USA

Date: June 6, 2018

Attribute: (featured on Teen Films and teen show DVD)

Country of Origin - Add


Directors - Add

Name: Rogers, Fred (I)

Budget - Add

Currency: USD

Amount: 900,000,000

Distributors - Add

Company: Marvel Studios [us]


Production Companies - Add

Company: Paramount Pictures [us]

Attribute: (presents)

Cast - Add

Name: Rogers, Fred (I)

Character: Mister Roger

Certificate (ratings) Information - Add

Country: USA

Certificate: TV-MA

Attribute: (uncensored)

Running Times - Add

Country: USA

Time: 400

Attribute: (DVD version)

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