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Water polo is a team water sport. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into their opponent's goal. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. A team consists of 6 field players and one goalkeeper in the water at any one time. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both offensive and defensive roles. In addition to this, teams may have substitute field players and substitute goalkeepers who are not in the water. Water polo is typically played in an all-deep pool 7 feet deep and players require stamina and endurance to play the game.

Water polo is a contact sport. Minor fouls occur frequently and exclusion fouls (in which a player is suspended from the game for 20 seconds) are common.

Special equipment for water polo includes a water polo ball, which floats on the water; numbered and colored caps; and two goals, which either float in the water or are attached to the side of the pool.

The game consists of swimming (with and without the ball), using a special form of treading water known as the eggbeater kick, throwing, catching, and shooting the ball. All throwing and catching must be done using a single hand except the goalkeeper.

The game is thought to have originated in Scotland in the late 19th century as a sort of "water rugby". William Wilson is thought to have developed the game during a similar period. The game thus developed with the formation of the London Water Polo League and has since expanded, becoming widely popular in various places around the world, including Europe, the United States, Brazil, China, Canada and Australia.

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