Blue Sky Studios is an American computer animation film studio based in Greenwich, Connecticut that has been owned by 20th Century Fox since 1997. The studio was founded in 1987 by Chris Wedge, Michael Ferraro, Carl Ludwig, Alison Brown, David Brown, and Eugene Troubetzkoy after the company they worked in, MAGI, one of the visual effects studios behind Tron (1982), shut down. Using its in-house rendering software, the studio had worked on visual effects for commercials and films before completely dedicating itself to animated film production in 2002 with the release of Ice Age.

Ice Age and Rio are the studio's most successful franchises, while The Peanuts Movie is its most critically acclaimed film. As of 2013, Scrat, a character from the Ice Age films, is the studio's mascot.


1980–89: Formation and early computer animation

In the late 1970s, Chris Wedge, then an undergraduate at Purchase College studying film, was employed by Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. (MAGI). MAGI was an early computer technology company which produced SynthaVision, a software application that could replicate the laws of physics to measure nuclear radiation rays for U.S. government contracts.[3]:12-13 At MAGI, Wedge met Eugene Troubetzkoy, who held a Ph.D in theoretical physics and was one of the first computer animators. Using his background in character animation, Wedge helped MAGI produce animation for television commercials, which eventually led to an offer from Walt Disney Productions to produce animation for the film Tron (1982). For Tron, MAGI hired Michael Ferraro, a systems architect, and Carl Ludwig, an electrical engineer.[3]:13 As MAGI's success began to decline, the company employed David Brown from CBS/Fox Video to be a marketing executive and Alison Brown to be a managing producer.[3]:12-13 After MAGI shut down, the six individuals—Wedge, Troubetzkoy, Ferraro, Ludwig, David Brown, and Alison Brown—founded Blue Sky Studios in February 1987 to continue their work in computer animation.[3]:13[4]

Ferraro began to build a programming language specifically tailored for Blue Sky's proprietary animation software, CGI Studio.[3]:12-13 At the time, scanline renderers were prevalent in the computer graphics industry, and they required computer animators and digital artists to add lighting effects in manually;[3]:13 Troubetzkoy, Ferraro, and Ludwig developed CGI Studio to use ray tracing,[5] which allows the renderer to simulate the physical properties of light and produce lighting effects automatically.[3]:13-14 To accomplish this, Ludwig examined how light passes through water, ice, and crystal, and programmed those properties into the software.[3]:13 Following the stock market crash of 1987, Blue Sky Studios did not find their first client until about two years later: a company "that wanted their logo animated so it would be seen flying over the ocean in front of a sunset."[3]:13-14 In order to receive the commission, Blue Sky spent two days rendering a single frame and submitted it to the prospective client. However, once the client accepted their offer, Blue Sky found that they could not produce the entire animation in time without help from a local graphics studio, which provided them with extra computer processors.[3]:14

1989–2002: Television commercials, visual effects, and Bunny

Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, Blue Sky Studios concentrated on the production of television commercials and visual effects for film. The studio began by animating commercials that depicted the mechanisms of time-release capsules for pharmaceutical corporations. The studio also produced a Chock Full O' Nuts commercial with a talking coffee bean and developed the first computer-animated M&M's.[3]:14 Using CGI Studio, the studio produced over 200 other commercials for clients such as Chrysler, General Foods, Texaco, and the United States Marines.[6] Blue Sky Studios also produced the computer animation for the "Mathman" video game segments of PBS's Square One Television.[3]:14

In the mid-1990s, MTV hired Blue Sky Studios to animate their network IDs, which led to additional collaboration between the two companies on the film Joe's Apartment (1996), for which Blue Sky animated the insect characters. Other clients included Bell Atlantic, Rayovac, Gillette and Braun.[3]:14 The Braun commercial was awarded a CLIO Award for Advertising.[3]:14 Recalling the award, Carl Ludwig stated that the judges had initially mistaken the commercial as a live action submission as a result of the photorealism of the computer-animated razor.[5][7] In August 1997, 20th Century Fox's Los Angeles-based visual effects company, VIFX, acquired majority interest in Blue Sky Studios to form a new visual effects and animation company, temporarily renamed "Blue Sky/VIFX".[8] Following the studio's expansion, Blue Sky produced character animation for the films Alien Resurrection (1997), A Simple Wish (1997), Mousehunt (1997), Star Trek: Insurrection (1998) and Fight Club (1999).[3]:15

Meanwhile, starting in 1990, Chris Wedge had been working on a short film named Bunny, intended to demonstrate CGI Studio. The film revolves around a rabbit widow who is irritated by a moth. The moth subsequently leads the rabbit into "a heavenly glow, reuniting her with her husband."[3]:15 At the time, Wedge had been the thesis advisor for Carlos Saldanha while Saldanha was a graduate student at the School of Visual Arts; Wedge shared storyboard panels for Bunny with Saldanha during this time. After Saldanha's graduation, Blue Sky Studios hired him as an animator, and he later directed a few commercials. It was not until 1996 when Nina Rappaport, a producer at Blue Sky Studios, assigned Wedge to complete the Bunny project, which required CGI Studio to render fur, glass, and metal from multiple light sources, such as a swinging light bulb and an "ethereal cloudscape". In the initial stages of the Bunny project, Carl Ludwig modified CGI Studio to simulate radiosity, which tracks light rays as they reflect off of multiple surfaces. Blue Sky Studios released Bunny in 1998, and it received the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film. Bunny's success gave Blue Sky Studios the opportunity to produce feature length films.[3]:15

2002–present: Feature films

File:Blue Sky Studios logo.svg

Due to the F/X market crash, Fox decided to leave the visual effects business. In March 1999, they sold VIFX to another visual effects house, Rhythm & Hues Studios,[9] and considered selling Blue Sky next. At the time, the studio got the opportunity with the Ice Age script to turn it into a comedy. In 2002, Ice Age was released to great critical and commercial success. The film got a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, and established Blue Sky as the third studio, after Pixar and DreamWorks Animation, to launch a successful CGI franchise.[10]

In January 2009, the studio moved from White Plains, New York to Greenwich, Connecticut, taking advantage of the state's 30 percent tax credit and having more space to grow.[11][2] The studio stated in April 2017 that it intends to stay in Connecticut until 2025.[12]

In 2013, Chris Wedge took a leave of absence to direct Paramount Animation's live-action/computer-animated film Monster Trucks.[13]


Blue sky studios feature films 2

Feature films

Released films

# Title Release date Budget[14] Gross[14] RT MC[15]
1 Ice Age 2002 $59 million $383 million 77% 60
2 Robots 2005 $75 million $260 million 64% 64
3 Ice Age: The Meltdown 2006 $80 million $660 million 57% 58
5 Dr. Seuss' Horton Hears a Who! 2008 $85 million $297 million 79% 71
6 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs 2009 $90 million $886 million 45% 50
7 Rio 2011 $90 million $484 million 72% 63
8 Ice Age: Continental Drift 2012 $95 million $877 million 37% 49
9 Epic 2013 $93 million $268 million 64% 52
10 Rio 2 2014 $103 million $500 million 46% 49
11 The Peanuts Movie 2015 $99 million $246 million 87% 67
11 Ice Age: Collision Course 2016 $105 million $408 million 15% 34
12 Ferdinand 2017 [16][17][18][19]

Upcoming films

# Title Release date Ref(s)
13 Spies in Disguise September 13, 2019 [20][21][22][23]
14 Waybuloo March 5, 2020
15 Cardz September 6, 2020 [24]
16 Nimona 2021 [25][26][27]
17 Land Middle of Tintin July 2022
18 FruityTales December 2023

Films in development

Title Ref(s)
Anubis [16][28][29][2][27]
Mutts [30][31][32][33]
Alienology [34]
Frogkisser! [35][36]
Escape from Hat [37]
Family Guy [38]
Untilted Dragon Ball Super film [39]

Television specials

# Title Release date
1 Ice Age: A Mammoth Christmas Script error
2 Ice Age: The Great Egg-Scapade[40] Script error

Short films

# Title Release date
1 Bunny Script error
2 Gone Nutty Script error
3 Aunt Fanny's Tour of Booty Script error
4 No Time for Nuts Script error
5 Surviving Sid Script error
6 Umbrellacorn [41][42] Script error
7 Cosmic Scrat-tastrophe [43] Script error
8 Scrat: Spaced Out[44][45] Script error



Academy Awards

Year Film Category Winner/Nominee(s) Result
1998 Bunny Best Animated Short Film Chris Wedge Won
2002 Ice Age Best Animated Feature Chris Wedge Nominated
2011 Rio Best Original Song "Real in Rio" Nominated

Golden Globe Awards

Year Film Category Winner/Nominee(s) Result
2015 The Peanuts Movie Best Animated Feature Film Steve Martino Nominated

See also


  1. "Vanessa Morrison Re-Ups With Fox, Brian Keane With Blue Sky After ‘Ice Age 4′". Deadline. July 18, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Blue Sky Studios at 30: Moving beyond ‘Ice Age’. Westfair Online (May 27, 2017). Retrieved on May 30, 2017 “...will be released on Dec. 15, followed by “Pigeon Impossible,” scheduled for Jan. 18, 2019.”
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 Friedman, Jake S. (2014). The Art of Blue Sky Studios. San Rafael, California: Insight Editions. ISBN 9781608873173. 
  4. Dumas, Timothy (October 2010). Animation Domination. Greenwich Magazine. Retrieved on February 3, 2011
  5. 5.0 5.1 Our Story: Blue Sky Studios. Blue Sky Studios.
  6. Ohmer, Susan (May 1, 1997). Ray Tracers: Blue Sky Studios. Animation World Network. Retrieved on September 29, 2006
  7. Mellor, Louisa (14 July 2016). The 'Ice Age' franchise never would've happened without this movie. Business Insider.
  8. "Imaginative Pix takes interest in Blue Sky". Variety. August 27, 1997. Retrieved October 2, 2012. 
  9. Graser, Marc (March 3, 1999). "Fox to sell visual F/X division to R&H". Variety. Retrieved October 2, 2012. 
  10. Fritz, Ben (May 2, 2008). "Fox animation soars under Blue Sky". Variety. Retrieved October 2, 2012. 
  11. Strike, Joe (January 28, 2009). "Checking Out Blue Sky's New Connecticut Studio". Animation World Network. Retrieved October 2, 2012. 
  12. Fox’s Blue Sky Studios Staying in Connecticut Through 2025. Variety Media (7 April 2017). Retrieved on 18 April 2017
  13. Finke, Nikki (July 31, 2013). "Paramount Animation Plans ‘Monster Trucks’ Live Action-Toon Franchise: In Final Talks With Blue Sky’s Chris Wedge To Direct". Retrieved February 24, 2014. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Blue Sky Movies at the Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved on April 12, 2015
  15. Blue Sky Studios's Profile. Metacritic. Retrieved on April 12, 2015
  16. 16.0 16.1 Chitwood, Adam (May 16, 2013). "DreamWorks Animation Moves B.O.O. Release Up to June 5, 2015 and TROLLS to November 4, 2016; Fox Dates ANUBIS and FERDINAND". Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  17. Brodesser-Akner, Claude (February 18, 2011). "Fox, Ice Age Director Bullish on The Story of Ferdinand". New York. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  18. McClintock, Pamela (August 9, 2016). "'Croods 2' Release Delayed Amid DreamWorks Animation Sale". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 10, 2016. 
  19. Release Schedule - New Dates & Changes. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved on February 4, 2017
  20. Virtual Press Office (August 23, 2016). "TWENTIETH CENTURY FOX CONSUMER PRODUCTS - BLE 2016 PREVIEW STATEMENT". Press release. Retrieved September 22, 2016. 
  21. Pigeon Impossible. Box Office Mojo (2019). Retrieved on September 22, 2016
  22. McNary, Dave (March 14, 2017). "Animated Movie ‘Darkmouth’ Finds Directors in David Pimentel, Douglas Sweetland". Variety. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  23. "Spies in Disguise to be Voiced by Will Smith and Tom Holland". 9 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017. 
  24. 15
  25. Kit, Borys (June 11, 2015). "Fox Animation Nabs 'Nimona' Adaptation With 'Feast' Director (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 30, 2017. 
  26. Riley, Jennel (February 9, 2017). "Oscar Winner Patrick Osborne Returns With First-Ever VR Nominee ‘Pearl’". Variety. Retrieved June 30, 2017. "I’m working with Blue Sky Animation and Fox on “Nimona,..." 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Couch, Aaron (June 30, 2017). "Fox Carves Out Dates for 6 Mystery Marvel Movies". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 30, 2017. 
  28. "Ice Age 5 Set for July 15, 2016, Anubis Moves to 2018". December 20, 2013. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  29. Siegel, Tatiana (April 13, 2008). "Fox Animation weaves ‘Tapestry’". Variety. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  30. Kit, Borys (July 22, 2011). "'Mutts' Comic Strip Headed to Big Screen From 20th Century Fox (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 23, 2011. 
  31. Millero, Ralph (November 2, 2011). Ralph Millero's Photos. Facebook. Retrieved on November 7, 2011
  32. Cavna, Michael (November 22, 2014). "MUTTS ADO ABOUT ‘NOTHING': Patrick McDonnell gives the gift of warmth in wonderful ‘Mutts’ musical’s Kennedy Center world premiere". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2015. 
  33. For Mutts’ Patrick McDonnell, It’s Always the Year of Yesh!. CBR (December 13, 2016). Retrieved on May 7, 2017
  34. Kroll, Justin; Abrams, Rachel (October 25, 2012). "'Rio' helmer Carlos Saldanha inks Fox pact". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2012. 
  35. Ford, Rebecca (September 28, 2016). "Fox Animation, Blue Sky Adapting Princess and the Frog Tale 'Frogkisser!' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 29, 2016. 
  36. Ford, Ashley (April 4, 2017). "'Boss Baby' Screenwriter to Pen Fox's Animated 'Frogkisser!'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 4, 2017. 
  37. ‘Little Prince’s Mark Osborne & Scribe Adam Kline Link With Fox Animation For Two New Projects. Deadline (April 27, 2017). Retrieved on April 30, 2017
  38. Szalai, Georg (July 23, 2007). ""Family Guy" movie possible, MacFarlane says". Reuters. Retrieved August 31, 2009. 
  39. 1st Key Visual For 2015 Dragon Ball Z Film Reveals Frieza. Retrieved on November 17, 2014
  40. Evry, Max (February 22, 2016). Ice Age: The Great Egg-Scapade is Coming to FOX. Retrieved on February 19, 2016
  41. Umbrellacorn (2013). Blue Sky Studios. Retrieved on October 19, 2013
  42. Umbrellacorn. Rooftop Films. Retrieved on October 19, 2013
  43. Truitt, Brian (November 6, 2015). "Sneak peek: Scrat heads to space for 'Ice Age' short". USA Today. Retrieved November 6, 2015. 
  44. Ice Age: Collision Course 4K Blu-ray. (August 30, 2016). Retrieved on September 7, 2016
  45. #IceAge #CollisionCourse is coming to Blu-ray & DVD Oct. 11 with all-new heroes, worlds and adventures! Here's your exclusive sneak peek at a Special Feature.. Facebook (August 30, 2016). Retrieved on September 7, 2016
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 PR Newswire (April 4, 2002). "Blue Sky Is Red Hot With Ice Age". Press release. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  47. "Blue Sky Studios' fully-CG xenomorph adds new menace to infamous alien.". American Cinematographer (The American Society of Cinematographers). November 1997. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  48. Book Review: The Art of Blue Sky Studios. Animation World Network (November 12, 2014). Retrieved on March 21, 2015
  49. Leigh, Danny (August 2000). "Jesus' Son (1999)". Sight & Sound (British Film Institute). Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  50. The Art Of Blue Sky Studios review. Den of Geek (October 2, 2014). Retrieved on March 21, 2015
  51. Mink, Eric (April 13, 2000). "The Brains Behind the Talking Fish". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  52. Moltenbrey, Karen (August 2000). "After Earth". Computer Graphics World. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  53. Template:Cite video
  54. Lowe, R. Kinsey (April 3, 2006). "`Ice Age': It came, thawed, conquered". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 1, 2015.  FruityTales (2020) Rodney Coderbottom and Fender Pinwheeler Cameo in the episode [[Where's Fun When I'm F-Fear?

Further reading

  • Friedman, Jake S. (2014). The Art of Blue Sky Studios. San Rafael, California: Insight Editions. ISBN 9781608873173. 

External links

Script error

Template:Blue Sky Studios Template:Animation industry in the United States Template:Fox Entertainment Group

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